New media technology, the increasing prevalence of linked cellular phones, and increased access to global information sources, along with social networking and media-sharing websites, has altered the way that individuals learn, interpret, create and ‘publish’ work.
The Open Movement has evolved as individuals and institutions around the world have embraced the benefits of releasing digitised text and multi-media content that is online, free of charge, often collaborative, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Their actions remove most of the barriers – commercial and access – to knowledge and creative content. It harnesses and develops social economy, and allows for innovative education and creative exchange and support.
The Open Movement incorporates Open Access, Open Data, Open Source, Open Science, Open Education, Open Licensing and Open Content. Notable information sources and approaches that are results of the Open Online Movement include Wikipedia, Creative Commons, Khan Academy, Open Knowledge Foundation, Wikimedia projects, Open Education Resources (OER – including MITx and Coursera) and citizen journalism.
The concept of citizen journalism (also known as “public”, “participatory”, “democratic”, “guerrilla” or “street” journalism) is based upon public citizens “playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information.” Citizen journalism should not be confused with community journalism or civic journalism, both of which are practiced by professional journalists. Collaborative journalism is also a separate concept and is the practice of professional and non-professional journalists working together. Citizen journalism is a specific form of both citizen media and user generated content.